History of Pressure Canner
One of the first prototypes of pressure canner was founded by a French mathematician named Denis Papin (1647-1712). In 1679 he invented the prototype which was in the form of a large cast iron vessel with a lid that locked. This invention did raise the boiling point of water and it was at this higher temperature, bones softened and meat cooked faster due to high pressure. It was due to this reason that this was called “digestor of engine”.
The bulky cast iron made digestor was known to cook delicious foods and it was dangerous as there were common explosions which caused havoc. Papin modified the archaic pressure canners many times. He presented the digestor to Royal Society who wrote in 1682, 12th April when a person named John Evelyn present during demonstration wrote
I went this afternoon with several of the Royal Society to a supper which was all dressed, both fish and flesh, in Monsieur Papin’s digestors, by which the hardest bones of beef itself, and mutton, were made as soft as cheese, without water or other liquor, and with less than eight ounces of coals, producing an incredible quantity of gravy; and for close of all, a jelly made of the bones of beef, the best for clearness and good relish, and the most delicious that I had ever seen, or tasted.
Papin later improved the plans for future pressure cookers though he did not live to see it reach it’s full potential, he is credited to make one of the first pressure canners. It is also stated that the first need rose to those living on high altitudes as noted in Charles Darwin diary.
At the place where we slept water necessarily boiled, from the diminished pressure of the atmosphere, at a lower temperature than it does in a less lofty country; the case being the converse of that of a Papin’s digester. Hence the potatoes, after remaining for some hours in the boiling water, were nearly as hard as ever. The pot was left on the fire all night, and next morning it was boiled again, but yet the potatoes were not cooked.”
High Altitudes required High Pressure
At high altitudes it was very difficult to cook meals at high temperature, boiling meat and vegetable did not cook very easily, for example potatoes were inserted and when it was boiled for hours it remained strangely hard. At high altitudes it had very low atmospheric pressures, the lower the temperature, the lower the pressure it was required to boil the water, That means a pot could literally boil dry without its contents having been completely cooked which would increase the cooking times dramatically.
The opposite is actually true too. Water’s boiling point raises as pressure raises. Because of the boiling point raises, a lot more bad bacteria could be killed, as well as the faster food preparation times get. A pressure cooker tries to do just that. It is really a cookware that can be totally sealed. When the water within starts to boil it creates vapor. Given that the container is actually sealed, that vapor has nowhere to go. Stuck, because it is, pressure develops, as well as, as may be anticipated, the outcomes tend to be increased cooking food temperatures as well as smaller cooking times. Meals can prepare as much as 70% quicker inside a pressure cooker, with a few complete meals ready in only a few minutes. A lot of pressure is relieved with the use of safety release valves, therefore today’s cookers as well as canners provide effective, safe usage.
Development in France
Back to the history of the pressure canner and this time again it was the French who improved storing in the airtight seal so they can preserve foods. During the Napolean times lack of nutrition was rampant and as Napoleon was ready for his Russian war, he required a much better way to supply food for his troops, therefore he provided a reward of 12 thousand francs to somebody who may find a method to preserve foodstuff.The vacuum canning procedure was developed in France in 1795 by Nicholas Appert, candy maker who won the prize and provided Napoleon with regard to a method to avoid army meals supplies from going stale.He was the pioneer of canning as we understand. He placed clean items (meat, vegetables) within wide-mouthed glass containers that have been then warmed in a boiling water bath. Lastly, the actual containers were hermetically covered with corks. This canning procedure was very important which it had been a French military secret, however it quickly leaked out over the English Channel. In 1810 Peter Durance, an Englishman, trademarked the usage of steel containers for canning,that was enhanced by Bryan Dorkin and John Hall, who created the very first commercial canning factory in England in 1813. Through the next year other people had exposed industrial facilities. The soldiers who fought at Waterloo had canned foods which were utilized to give food to the British army and navy. After 50 years, Louis Pasteur supplied the reason for canning’s usefulness when he could display how the development of microbes may be the reason for food spoilage.
In 1902 in the United states the very first pressure canner patents had been given. Earlier industrial pressure cookers had been massive sized pressure vessels. They had been referred to as “canner retorts,” as well as had been mainly utilized by commercial canneries. Then smaller sized like fifty gallon capacity pressure cookers had been developed for hotel & institutional then the thirty-gallon canners for hotel had been produced by National Presto, then known as Northwestern Iron and Steel Works. for pressure cooking meals instead of canned products. As the technology improved, the 10 gallon models, much more appropriate for household canning, had been manufactured.
“Pressure cooker” invented
Since canning was more or less used with preservation in mind, in 1915 the term “pressure cooker” appeared in print. Strangely in1930, something called exhaust cooker appeared, a steam pressure cooker which used the car’s exhaust heat to cook food. Alfred Vischler was the first one to make the modern pressure cooker in 1938 which was launched at a New York town business show, offering it as being for cooking foods as opposed to canning. His concept highly effective it spread to America and Europe and was a very big hit there. Housewives wanted a smaller version so they could use it at home which was convieniently developed. The new sized pressure cookers were so small than the hotel or factory sized pressure cookers and it was great for small families and was then mass manufactured.
In the beginning of WWII back in 1941, smaller sized cast aluminum pressure cookers liked wide-spread recognition in many homes. The manufacturing of pressure cookers by 11 main suppliers was firmly regulated during World War II, because aluminum had been required for the war effort, also it was not well before the manufacturing of aluminum pressure cookers stopped. During the war days pressure cookers created by carbon steel, enamaled steel and cast iron carried on to be produced for the vitally important victory gardens. Food and fuel shortages pressured returning to home canning, and many government programs supported the home front and planted a victory garden on the front lawn of the White House.
Beginning of the End of Pressure Canners
After the war ended in 1945 the demand for pressure cookers was huge. The demand exceeding beyond the supply and there was a huge waiting lists. In subsequent years there were 85 US manufacturers trying to convert from war products to producing pressure cookers and canners, but what these people did not know about pressure cookery due to huge demand it brought the decrease as well as drop of pressure cooking in America. This surge in demand caused rise in competition and many manufacturers flocked the market thus making poorer and cheaper products and they produced in large quantities rather than quality and these low quality products flooded the market from lat 40′s to 50′s which caused many havoc as these pressure cookers were unsafe and killed many people which lost the popularity in States.
Many manufacturers slowly went bankrupt and only few good ones remained in business but manufacturers were overstocked and when consumers asked for better quality ones, they were slow to comply as they were had to sell of the stock and they brought in the new ones very slowly. Moreover microwaves emerged in the market which was much faster to cook in compared to pressure cookers which further declined the sales of pressure canners.
Emergence of European Pressure Canners
As American cooks had been keeping their pressure cookers dumped in the basement, Europeans were however gladly utilizing their aged dependable cookers and by no means experiencedany issues with their American counterparts. Through the 1950′s European and Asian manufacturers invested in R&D to manufacture fresh designs as well as improve security features that contributed to the modern pressure cookers.They created brand new valve systems, updated many safety release measures. In the 90′s European pressure cookers were introduced to American market, and the new models were introduced with their new safety features, quiet operational and has improved features compared to locally manufactured ones.. Americans once again started loving pressure cookers which were fast, economical, efficient and made good old nutritious meals and once again they went back to the market.